Romania now


steag-ro

Republic, in south-eastern Europe, bordered on the north by Ukraine; on the east by Moldova; on the south-east by the Black Sea; on the south by Bulgaria; on the south-west by Serbia (part of the federation of Serbia and Montenegro); and on the west by Hungary. The total area of Romania is about 237,500 sq km (91,700 sq mi). Bucharest is Romania’s capital and largest city.

Land and Resources

Romania is roughly oval in shape, with a maximum extent east to west of about 740 km (460 mi) and north to south about 475 km (295 mi). The topography is varied. The Transylvanian Basin, or Plateau, which occupies central Romania, is very hilly for the most part, but also has wide valleys and extensive arable slopes. The Transylvania region is almost completely surrounded by mountains. To the north and east are the Carpathian Mountains, and along the south are the Transylvanian Alps, which continue south to the Danube gorge at the Banat Mountains. Moldoveanul (2,544 m/8,395 ft), the highest peak in the country, is in these Alps. A smaller group of ranges, the Bihor Mountains, is west of Transylvania. The remaining areas of Romania are predominantly lowlands. In the west are the lowlands of the Tisza Plain, which are usually referred to as the Banat, adjacent to the Serbian border, and Crisana-Maramures, adjacent to Hungary. The most extensive plains are the lowlands of Walachia, located between the Transylvanian Alps and Bulgaria, and the region of Moldova (Moldavia), east of the Carpathian Mountains. Bordering the Black Sea in the extreme east and forming part of Dobruja, or Dobrogea, is a low plateau, which continues south into Bulgaria.

The most important river of Romania is the Danube. It demarcates the eastern part of the boundary with Serbia, and most of the boundary with Bulgaria. The valley of the lower course of the Danube (east of the Iron Gate gorge near Turnu Severin) and the Danube delta are very swampy. Other important rivers, all part of the Danube system, are the Mures, Prut, Olt, and Siret. Romania has many small, freshwater mountain lakes, but the largest lakes are saline lagoons on the coast of the Black Sea; the largest of these is Lake Razelm.

Climate

The Transylvanian Basin, the Carpathian Mountains, and the western lowlands have warm summers and cold winters with recorded temperature extremes ranging between 37.8° C (100° F) and -31.7° C (-25° F). The Walachian, Moldavian, and Dobrujan lowlands have hotter summers and occasionally experience periods of severe cold in winter; recorded extremes in Bucharest and the lowlands are 38.9° C (102° F) and -23.9° C (-11° F). Rainfall averages 508 mm (20 in) on the plains and from 508 mm to 1,016 mm (20 in to 40 in) on the mountains and is concentrated in the warmer half of the year.

Natural Resources

The principal resources of Romania are agricultural, but the country also has significant mineral deposits, particularly oil, natural gas, salt, coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, bauxite, chromium, manganese, lead, and zinc.

Plants and Animals

Wooded steppe, now largely cleared for agriculture, predominates in the plains of Walachia and Moldova. Fruit trees are common in the foothills of the mountains. On the lower slopes are found forests of such deciduous trees as birch, beech, and oak. The forests of the higher altitudes are coniferous, consisting largely of pine and spruce trees. Above the timberline (approximately 1,750 m/5,740 ft), the flora is alpine.

Wild animal life is abundant in most parts of Romania. The larger animals, found chiefly in the Carpathian Mountains, include the wild boar, wolf, lynx, fox, bear, chamois, roe deer, and goat. In the plains, typical animals are the squirrel, hare, badger, and polecat. Many species of birds are abundant; the Danube delta region, now partly a nature preserve, is a stopover point for migratory birds. Among species of fish found in the rivers and offshore are pike, sturgeon, carp, flounder, salmon, perch, and eel.

Unirea


Unirea Tarii Romanesti cu Moldova

24 Ianuarie 1859

Unirea Principatelor Române de la 24 ianuarie 1859 este considerată primul pas facut de romani  inaintea înfăptuirii statului naţional unitar român. Intre 5-17 ianuarie 1859, Alexandru Ioan Cuza a fost ales în unanimitate domn al Moldovei si la 24 ianuarie-5 februarie, este ales şi domn al Munteniei.

Astfel se unsec sub un singur domnitor cele doua provincii istorice care cuprindeau in interiorul lor populatie de aceeasi limba si acelasi neam.

Unirea de la 1959 este de fapt vechea dorinta a lui Mihai Viteazul care cu cateva secole in urma a reusit sa uneasca cele trei principate Tara Romaneasca, Moldova si Transilvania sub un singur domnitor si sub un singur steag.

Stiati ca…


Zăpada reflectă un nivel ridicat de radiații ultraviolete care pot provoca orbire (fotocheratită)? Pentru a preveni acest lucru, puteți utiliza ochelari de soare, ochelari de protecție sau alte astfel de metode protectoare pentru ochi care absorb razele ultraviolete.

Cea mai rece temperatură înregistrată pe Terra a fost -128 de grade? Aceasta s-a resimțit în Antarctica, în anul 1983.

Iarna, copacii și plantele încetează să mai crească?

Pentru a supraviețui mediului nefavorabil din acest anotimp, unele animale și-au dezvoltat diverse tehnici de supraviețuire, cum ar fi migrarea, hibernarea, depozitarea mâncării, schimbarea culorii sau creșterea unei blăni mai groase? Exemple de animale care hibernează: ariciul, ursul, liliacul, melcul sau popândăul. Exemple de păsări migratoare: barza, cucul, acvila, ciocârlia de pădure, pițigoiul sau rândunica.

Teama de zăpadă, mai ales de a fi prins în zăpadă, se numește chionofobie?

Motto


Viitorul. Perioada aceea în care afacerile noastre prosperă, prietenii ne sunt prieteni adevărați și fericirea ne este asigurată.

Vise si Premonitii


Potrivit mai multor studii, între 18% și 30% dintre oameni au avut cel puțin un vis premonitoriu, iar procentajul celor care cred în existența acestui tip de vise sunt între 63% și 98% dintre oameni.

„Premonitia visului meu este premonitia proiectiei mele”

De ce nu au românii mafie ca în Balcani


Celor care se plîng că România ar fi pradă mafiilor le răspund cu răbdare că exagerează din neștiință… Noi sîntem panseluțe neviolente. Habar n-au ei ce-i aia mafie. Nu știu ce înseamnă să trăiești în Palermo, Corleone, Moscova sau Belgrad… In România incă nu s-au pus bombe în discoteci rivale, niciun procuror nu a fost încă mitraliat în stradă, iar disputele încă se rezolvă la TV și pe Facebook, iar nu prin incendierea blocului în care dormi (uneori).

E singura  țară din regiune în care nu au fost asasinați politicieni sau ziariști.

La noi de fapt nu există mafii, ci doar găști. Găști de găinari nepuși pe omor. Găști gata să se spargă oricând, compuse din oameni capabili să se toarne unul pe altul în orice moment, doar să nu li se strivească un deget.

Mafia implică în schimb o solidaritate clanică, tribală, care nu poate fi reconstituită într-o societate spartă de secole cum e a noastră. Mafia autentică, cea funcțională socio-economic și greu de penetrat de infiltratori din afară (printre altele și pentru că asemenea clanuri vorbesc deseori propriul lor dialect), e cea din societățile tradiționale, arhaice, bazate pe o diviziune clanică unori chiar geografică (grație, să spunem, teritoriului muntos): albanezii, cecenii, kurzii, sau izolării insulare: sicilienii, corsicanii…

Sîrbii și muntenegrinii sînt un caz aparte, în care clanul a rămas o realitate vie pînă în timpurile moderne, inclusiv sub acea formă de familie extinsă numită zadruga, ceea ce făcea ca, la sîrbi precum la ceceni, și în vremea comunismului anumite cooperative agricole (CAP) să fie compuse dintr-un singur clan, de la secretarul de partid la contabil, imposibil de penetrat din afară, imposibil de controlat.

In Balcani, așadar, sîrbii, albanezii, muntenegrinii au păstrat o diviziune clanică și familială tradițională care implică reguli ale vendettei și un ciment social ce include solidaritatea si protejarea criminalului care fuge de autoritati. Familiile, prietenii, gazda nu dau niciodată un fugar. Neîncrederea față de autorități e un fapt genetic; ospitalitatea criminală e înscrisă în ADN.

Societatea românească, însă, spartă, clevetitoare și auto-turnătoare nu poate crea o mafie… Poate crea doar găști de traficanți de mașini, proxeneți și bătăuși gata să se toarne unul pe altul, dar în niciun caz o organizație subterană de temut și impenetrabilă… Solidaritatea clanică e un fapt natural, precum flora și fauna, nu ceva care se reconstruiește după plac și chef…

Iată o explicație a faptului că cea mai mare țară din Europa de est și Balcani, România, cu aceeași istorie ca toate celelalte, de la ex-iugoslavi și albanezi pînă la bulgari, nu a cunoscut violența banditească și politico-economică ce a format cotidianul Balcanilor în ultimele două decenii… Un popor de găinari… în sensul bun, pour une fois.

Dracula. Legend and reality


Bram Stoker’s character, Dracula, is a Transylvanian Count with a castle located high above a valley perched on a rock with a flowing river below in the Principality of Transylvania.

This character is often confused with Vlad Tepes (Vlad the Impaler), sometimes known as Vlad Dracul, who was a Walachian Prince with a castle, now in ruins, located in the Principality of Wallachia. Because Bran Castle is the only castle in all of Transylvania that actually fits Bram Stoker’s description of Dracula’s Castle, it is known throughout the world as Dracula’s Castle. Chapter 2, May 5 of “Dracula” describes the Count’s castle as “. . . on the very edge of a terrific precipice . . . with occasionally a deep rift where there is a chasm [with] silver threads where the rivers wind in deep gorges through the forests.”

Bram Stoker never visited Romania. He depicted the imaginary Dracula’s castle based upon a description of Bran Castle that was available to him in turn-of-the-century Britain. Indeed, the imaginary depiction of Dracula’s Castle from the etching in the first edition of “Dracula” is strikingly similar to Bran Castle and no other in all of Romania. Stoker is widely purported to have used the illustration of Bran Castle in Charles Boner’s book, „Transylvania: Its Product and Its People”, (London: Longmans, 1865) to describe his imaginary Dracula’s Castle.

Dracula – as he is perceived today – is a fictitious character whose name derives from the appellation given to Vlad Tepes, the ruler of Wallachia from 1456-1462 and 1476, and who, for largely political reasons, was depicted by some historians of that time as a blood-thirsty ruthless despot.

Stoker’s character, Count Dracula, first appeared in the novel “Dracula”, published in England in 1897, by the Irish writer Bram Stoker. But the name “Dracula”, far from being a frightening term, derives from the Crusader Order of the Dragon with which Order both Vlad Tepes and his father had been associated. The rest of the Dracula myth derives from the legends and popular beliefs in ghosts and vampires prevalent throughout Transylvania.

Stoker’s Count Dracula is a centuries-old vampire, sorcerer, and Transylvanian nobleman, who claims to be a Székely descended from Attila the Hun. He inhabits a decaying castle in the Carpathian Mountains. In his conversations with the character Jonathan Harker, Dracula reveals himself as intensely proud of his boyar culture with a yearning for memories of his past. Count Dracula appears to have studied the black arts at the Academy of Scholomance in the Carpathian Mountains, near the town of Sibiu (then known as Hermannstadt). While Stoker named his Transylvanian Count “Dracula”, he was careful not to suggest an actual link to the historical character of Vlad Tepes. While Stoker’s character Van Helsing muses as to whether Count Dracula might be the Voivode Dracula, he obviously is not since Count Dracula of Transylvania is plainly not Prince Vlad Tepes of Wallachia and Stoker was disinclined at all to make his character a real person of historic significance.

In the villages near Bran, there is a belief in the existence of evil spirits called ghosts or “steregoi” (a variant of “strigoi”). Until half a century ago, it was believed that there existed certain living people – “strigoi” – who were leading a normal life during the day but at night, during their sleep, their souls left their bodies and haunted the village tormenting people in their sleep. These evil spirits haunt their prey from midnight until the first cockcrow, when their power to harm people faded. “The undead [i.e., ghosts, vampires] suffer from the curse of immortality,” writes Stoker, “they pass from one period to another, multiplying their victims, augmenting the evil in the world…” The Dracula character derives from these local myths.

As for Vlad Tepes, the ruler of Walachia, he does, indeed, has an association with Bran Castle. Vlad was involved in several campaigns to punish the German merchants of Brasov who failed to abide by his commands as regards their trade in his Walachian markets. Passage to Wallachia was through Bran, the closest gorge to Brasov, which connects with Targoviste, Vlad Tepes’ capital. The original customs houses at which taxes were collected from merchants entering Transylvania are still at the base of Bran Castle. The relationships with the Bran lords were not very cordial, as they were representatives of the Citadel of Brasov, which were hostile to Vlad the Impaler. It is not known if Vlad Tepes captured Bran Castle. Written documents do not describe it. The documents that do exist in archives with regard to Bran Castle, are mainly administrative and refer to the income and expenditure of the domain of the Bran Fortress, with little mention of political and military events.

Image

Vlad Tepes (Dracul)

However, in the fall of 1462, after the army of the Hungarian king, Matei Corvin, captured Vlad Tepes nearby the fortress of Podul Dambovitei, near Rucar, it appears that Vlad was taken to Bran Castle and locked up there for two months. This is affirmed in the recent volume Vlad The Impaler – Dracula, published by the Mirador Printing House, Arad, 2002, authored by Gheorghe Lazea Postelnicu. From here, Vlad was taken and imprisoned in the Visegrad Fortress.

Visitors to Bran Castle should make the distinction between the historic reality of Bran and the character of the Count in Bram Stoker’s novel. Dracula exists in the imagination.

Romania is one of the best countries in the world for investments, today.


Romania is ready to receive foreign investments, and they will grow, soon, immediately after the world economic prerequisites are favourable. The Romanian market is prepared to develop and go on. The Italian products are well known and Romanians appreciate them, although there are a couple of problems with buying them because the average income is too low. This is why the best investment areas for selling the products are big cities like Bucharest, Cluj, Timisoara,’ Iaccarino stressed.

As a matter of fact, Italy is Romania’s second biggest business partner. The Romanian-Italian bilateral exchanges totaled 11.42 billion euros, late in 2012, seeing a slight decrease of minus 5.1 percent compared to 2011. Romania numbered 31,500 companies, with an Italian capital worth 1.53 billion euros, on March 31, this year.

‘Tuscan represents an example for Romania in fields like farming, food and countryside tourism. We invite you to invest in Romania, the Government being a support to the investors,’ said Romanian Prime Minister’s personal advisor Georgian Ghervasie.

The Romanian-Italian commercial changes went up despite the current world crisis, and the are facilitated by the favourable general framework of the bilateral ties at all levels.

History of Bucharest


Unlike plenty other European capitals, Bucharest does not boast of a millenniums-long history. The first historical reference to this city under the name of Bucharest dates back to the Middle Ages, in 1459.

The story goes, however, that Bucharest was founded several centuries earlier, by a controversial and rather legendary character named Bucur (from where the name of the city is said to derive). What is certain is the area on which nowadays Bucharest stretches has been inhabited since ancient times.

As said, the city was first mentioned in 1459, in a document issued by the court of Prince Vlad the Impaler, the prince (voievod in Romanian) who allegedly inspired the creation of the world renowned character of Dracula. It was in those times that Bucharest started to grow as an important economic and political center of Wallachia. The Old Princely Court is the most important architectural complex which reminds of those times.

For several centuries after the reign of Vlad the Impaler, Bucharest, irrespective of its constantly increasing chiefdom on the political scene of Wallachia, did undergo the Ottoman rule (it was a vassal of the Empire), the Russian occupation, as well as short intermittent periods of Hapsburg domination. Lipscani Street (Strada Lipscani), which now delineates the historical quarter of Bucharest, was back then the main thoroughfare, crossing the center of the old city.

It was in 1881 that it became the capital city of the Principality of Romania, after the unification of Moldavia and Wallachia. Much of the medieval architectural heritage was destroyed in a fire in 1847, but the modern era brought a new period of prosperity. A strikingly modern city was being built, and the architectural landscape and urban layout brought international fame to Bucharest, such that the city was dubbed the Little Paris, and Calea Victoriei, one of the most celebrated avenues in nowadays Bucharest, was often compared with Champs Elysees.

One of the gloomiest episodes of the early 19th century refers to the moment when the population was stricken by the so-called Caragea’s plague, an epidemics which killed about one quarter of the population.

It was in 1918 (December the 1st, more precisely) that Transylvania was united with the previously constituted Principality of Romania. Hence, Bucharest became the capital of the entire country, after a 2-year period when the capital of the Principality was transferred to Iaşi due to the fact Bucharest was under German occupation (1916 to 1918, during World War One).

The period between the two world wars was exceptionally favorable to Bucharest. It was precisely then that the city experienced its cultural heydays. Casa Capşa, already acknowledged as a landmark of social, political and cultural meetings and debates, continued to enhance its prestige, both nationally and at international scale. However, subsequently to World War Two, once the Communist regime took over the political scene, much of the historical Bucharest lost its coordinates, at least architecturally speaking.

The megalomaniac projects of Nicolae Ceauşescu raised to the ground most of the historical landmarks of the city, not to mention his unfortunate contribution was complemented by the tragic earthquake in 1977, when Bucharest suffered further damage, and not only with respect to the city layout and architectural patrimony, but also to its population. The Parliament Palace (otherwise known as the People’s House, Casa Poporului in Romanian) is the best example which illustrates the artistic vision of the regime. For a deeper insight into the communist heritage, tourists need to look no further than the monotonous apartment buildings built in a dull Communist style which populate most of the city.

The last violent historical episodes which have taken over Bucharest refer to the 1989 Revolution and to the subsequent political and social commotions, commonly known under the name of Mineriads (Mineriade in Romanian), which took place in the early 1990s.

At present, Bucharest undergoes a constant and deep urban planning renewal, the much awaited facelift focusing, in part, on restoring whatever medieval and modern era heritage survived in time. The bewilderingly miscellaneous picture of Bucharest is, in fact, comprehensive enough to accommodate both spectacular elevated touches and grotesque dull shades, and not only architecturally speaking, but from the point of view of all that is related to the city (culture, people’s customs, infrastructure and so on).